Skaters need to match the width of your skateboard trucks to the width of your skateboard deck.
7.5" wide decks - 4.75 Trucks
7.75" wide decks - 5.00 Trucks
8.125" wide decks - 5.25 Trucks
8.25" and up - 5.25 trucks
If you do have an 8.25" or greater board, some manufactures like Independent have Super Wide trucks for this reason.
Inside the trucks are the bushings. Skateboard Truck Bushings cushion the truck when it turns. The stiffer the bushings, the more stable the skateboard. The softer the bushings, the easier the turn. For a brand new skateboarder, Delicious recommend using stiff bushings. They will break in over time. For more seasoned skateboarders, medium bushings are usually the perfect choice. I would only recommend soft bushings to skaters who want to spend most of their time carving on their skateboarding. Soft bushings can make tricks difficult, and require a lot of control. Most Skateboard trucks, the King Pin adjust to allow you to adjust your bushing play.
The truck height can vary. Low trucks make flip tricks easier and add some stability, but with lower trucks you will want smaller wheels. Visit any Wheels to get a guide on while sizing. High trucks allow you to use larger wheels, which will help when skateboarding at higher speeds or long distances. Longboards will typically use higher Trucks, freestyle decks will have the low profile trucks.
If you are a new skateboarder, I recommend using medium trucks, unless you know for sure that you want to use your skateboard for street or cruising. For street or flip tricking, low trucks are good. For cruising - use medium or high trucks.
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